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HISTORY    AND    HUMAN    RELATIONS

in that whole side of historical study which examines
the processes of things in time., is the necessary cause ot
counterpart of what appears as bias in the literary
historians. It is more easy to say that Charles I was a
wicked or a wilful man than to describe in seventeenth-
century England the development of a situation that
produced serious dilemmas and predicaments for honest
men of both sides. When the large organisation of the
narrative is wrong in this way, and the profounder
enquiries are-evaded because mere partisanship can find
an easy answer to the problems' that arise, the history is
vitiated at precisely those points where people draw
lessons from it and make the inferences that are to affect
their conduct From the point of view of present-day
utility and general moral education, the defects of the
literary historians, therefore, must be regarded as a
serious matter. They contributed greatly to historical
understanding in their own time. But our whole
apprehension of human conflict in past centuries has
advanced so far ahead of this that we cannot afford to
allow the clock to be put back.